KONTESTASI BAHASA PADA TANDA LUAR RUANG DI DAERAH PARIWISATA (Language Contestation on the Public Signs in A Touristic Area)

I Made Suta Paramarta

Abstract


Abstract

Language contestation on outdoor signs always occurs in certain territories because different languages cannot be socially equal. Candidasa, a tourist area located in the eastern part of Bali Island, also experiences language contestation in its outdoor signs. A qualitative descriptive study was conducted to describe and analyze the dominant and marginal language contestation. Then the language contestation was also analyzed using Bakhtin's theory of centripetal and centrifugal forces. The subjects of this study were all outdoor signs placed along the main road of Candidasa. In order to obtain the data, a digital camera and an observation sheet were used. The data collection process with a digital camera resulted in 622 photos. Data analysis was performed by classifying the data into top-down and bottom-up monolingual, bilingual, and multilingual types. Indonesian is very dominant in the monolingual top-down classification, while English occupies the dominant position in the monolingual bottom-up. In the top-down and bottom-up bilingual signs, the combination of Indonesian and English occupies a dominant position. Then, in the top-down and bottom-up multilingual outdoor signs, the combination of English and Indonesian languages also dominates. Balinese as a local language occupies a marginal position to the presence of Indonesian and English. The contestation from the point of view of centripetal and centrifugal forces shows four contestation patterns: pure centripetal pattern, combined pattern, pure centrifugal pattern, and centripetal centrifugal forces assimilation pattern. Both language forces are supported by national and regional language policy and the commercial interests of the sign makers.

Keywords: landscape linguistics, contestation, Bali, centripetal, centrifugal

 

Abstrak

Kontestasi bahasa pada tanda luar ruang sering terjadi pada suatu daerah. Bahasa yang berbeda tidak bisa memiliki posisi sama persis dalam satu lingkungan sosial. Candidasa sebagai daerah pariwisata yang terletak di Pulau Bali bagian timur tidak bisa menghindari fenomena tersebut. Sebuah penelitian deskriptif kualitatif telah dilaksanakan untuk mendeskripsikan dan menganalisis kontestasi bahasa; bahasa yang dominan dan marginal. Kemudian kontestasi bahasa itu juga dianalisis dengan teori daya sentripetal dan sentrifugal dari Bakhtin. Subjek penelitian ini adalah semua tanda luar ruang yang dipasang di sepanjang jalan utama Candidasa. Instrumen pengambilan data yang digunakan adalah kamera digital dan lembar observasi. Pengambilan data dengan kamera digital menghasilkan 622 buah foto. Analisis data dilakukan dengan mengklasifikasikan data ke dalam kelompok top-down dan bottom-up monolingual, bilingual, dan multilingual. Pada klasifikasi top-down monolingual, bahasa Indonesia sangat dominan sedangkan pada tipe bottom-up monolingual bahasa Inggris menduduki posisi dominan. Selanjutnya, pada tanda top-down dan bottom-up bilingual kombinasi bahasa Indonesia dan Inggris menduduki posisi dominan. Kemudian, pada tanda luar ruang top-down dan bottom-up multilingual kombinasi bahasa yang berisi bahasa Inggris dan Indonesia juga menduduki posisi dominan. Bahasa Bali sebagai bahasa lokal menduduki posisi marginal oleh kehadiran bahasa Indonesia dan Inggris. Kontestasi dari sudut daya sentripetal dan sentrifugal menunjukkan bahwa terdapat empat pola kontestasi yaitu pola murni sentripetal, pola gabungan, pola murni sentrifugal, dan pola asimilasi daya sentripetal dan sentrifugal. Kedua daya bahasa tersebut dilatarbelakangi oleh kebijakan bahasa nasional,  kebijakan bahasa daerah dan kepentingan komersial pembuat tanda.

Kata-kata kunci: linguistik lanskap, kontestasi, Bali, sentripetal, sentrifugal


Keywords


linguistik lanskap, kontestasi, Bali, sentripetal, sentrifugal

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.26499/sawer.v28i1.1003

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